There are several treatment options for thoracic aortic aneurysm and prevention would include the non-surgical options of controlling or modifying risk factors such as healthy diet, not smoking, exercise, and medications to control factors such as hyperlipidemia and blood pressure.

The two surgical options are thoracic aortic aneurysm open repair and the endovascular aneurysm repair.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm open repair. The type of surgery will depend on the location, type of aneurysm, and your overall health. For an ascending or aortic arch aneurysm, a large incision may be made through the breastbone. If an ascending aneurysm involves damage to the aortic valve of the heart, the valve may be repaired or replaced during the procedure. For a descending aneurysm, a large incision may extend from the back under the shoulder blade around the side of the rib cage to just under the breast. This lets the surgeon to see the aorta directly to repair the aneurysm.

Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). EVAR requires only small incisions in the groin. Using X-ray guidance and specially-designed instruments, the surgeon can repair the aneurysm by inserting a stent-graft, inside the aorta. Not all thoracic aneurysms can be repaired by means of EVAR.